Socialism frequently defines its major characteristic as “solidarity with the weak.” In today’s confused situation, this often means that in the Palestinian-Israeli conflict Social Democrats avert their gaze from the genocidal incitement of Hamas and the glorification of murderers by the Palestinian Authority. It is a major example of a structural ideological problem of substantial segments of socialism. Those socialists who are not careful, showing near blind solidarity with those declared as victims, may become allies of potential or real murderers and even of planners of genocide.
There is probably no other issue where one can see how many leading Social Democrats have gone down a slippery moral slope as in the case of the Middle East conflict. Once one is confronted with extreme cases, one can better discern the lesser ones.
In a study on Greek anti-Semitism published almost twenty years ago under the pen name Daniel Perdurant, Moses Altsech wrote that at the end of 1988 during the Socialist PASOK party’s rule, following a judicial investigation, the Athens Court of Appeals and the Greek Supreme Court decided that Abdel Osama Al-Zomar, an alleged Palestinian terrorist apprehended in Greece, should be extradited to Italy to face charges of bombing the synagogue of Rome in October 1982, injuring thirty-four people and killing a three-year-old child. Greek Justice Minister V. Rotis used his authority to overrule the court decisions, stating that Osama’s acts were part of the “Palestinian struggle for liberation of their homeland, and, therefore, cannot be considered acts of terrorism.”1
Altsech commented, “Rotis compared these deeds to the acts of terrorism as part of anti-Nazi resistance during World War II. Osama could choose a country to fly to and went to Libya. The Washington Post wrote that Greece had rolled out a red carpet for terrorists.”2
Altsech remarked elsewhere:
In 1986, a regular session of the Athens City Council received national—and international—attention because of comments made by the Socialist mayor, Dimitris Beis. At one point during the session, there was some noise and confu- sion, which the mayor described as “havra”— an insulting term which equates noise and tumult with Jews praying in unison in the synagogue. The mayor defended his remarks, and mocked those who protested.
An article in Apoghevmatini noted that at the time when Jews were being blamed for everything from forest fires to the Chernobyl meltdown, the mayor could expose his prejudice openly without concern about losing votes from a few Jewish citizens.3 New York Mayor Ed Koch, referred to Beis’ comments in a New York Post article about Greek anti-Semitism.4
In 2002, Theodoros Pangalos, a former Pasok foreign minister and EU commissioner led a protest march to the Israeli embassy. The embassy was closed because it was the Saturday of Passover. Pangalos then suggested that since the embassy was in Greece, it should respect the customs of its host country, and that not receiving the protest on the Sabbath of Passover was an insult to Greece. After Pasok’s electoral defeat to New Democracy in 2004, the outgoing Prime Minister Costas Simitis, was accused of not having handed power over to his successor, George Papandreou, early enough to give his party a better chance at victory. He was referred to as “the Jew Simitis” in a derogatory front page article of the pro-Pasok daily Avriani on March 11.5
The word Jew was used as invective, the more so as Simitis is not Jewish.
In Scandinavia one can find many examples of Social Democrat direct or indirect support for Palestinians while looking away from their multiple, extreme criminal activities. The anti-Israeli double standards are not only linked to election opportunism. Anna Lindh, who was Sweden’s foreign minister and destined to be prime minister before being assassinated, was known for her anti-Israeli bias.
Ambassador Mazel says:
The late foreign minister Anna Lindh usually made the most vicious attacks on Israel. Her hatred of Israel can only be described as almost pathological. Under her leadership Sweden published the greatest number of one-sided condemnations of Israel of any EU country. Lindh was stabbed to death in 2003 by a mentally disturbed Swede of Serbian origin.6
Lindh’s successor as foreign minister Laila Freivalds, also a Social Democrat, visited Yad Vashem in June 2004 to honor murdered Jews. She then heavily criticized Israel at a meeting in the Israeli Foreign Ministry. Freivalds remained silent on the extensive anti-Semitism in Sweden, much of which is of Muslim origin. This phenomenon of paying honor to dead Jews, criticizing Israel, and ignoring or belittling one’s own country’s major delinquencies toward living Jews is common in Europe. Freivalds’s behavior was subsequently exposed by four former chairmen of the Swedish Jewish community, who wrote about the rampant racism and anti-Semitism in the country.
They sent a letter to the editor of Haaretz in which they summarized contemporary Swedish anti-Semitism. The letter first praised Sweden for having received Jews fleeing the Holocaust during World War II, and Prime Minister Göran Persson for initiating the Living History Project.
The four then went on to say:
The number of verbal and physical attacks against Jews has increased in Sweden. Youngsters in schools give evidence of how they hide the fact of being Jews, as they are attacked both verbally and physically. Teachers testify that students refuse to participate in classes when Judaism is studied. Survivors report feelings of fear. The police stand passively by when extremists attack pro-Israel and anti-racist manifestations.
Over the last decades, Sweden has become a center of racist and anti-Semitic White Power music, and several anti-Semitic groups have established Swedish websites spreading anti-Semitic propaganda. The Swedish Church has just recently initiated a boycott campaign [against Israel], a reminder of the commercial boycott of Jews in various societies in the past.7
When the new Swedish Social Democratic government consisting of Social Democrats and Greens started activities in October 2014, Social Democrat Prime Minister Stefan Löfven announced that his government intended to recognize the Palestinian state. He did not mention any conditions.8 This was done at a time when there were many indications from polls that if there were Palestinian elections, Hamas leader Ismail Haniyeh would defeat the incum- bent Fatah president Mahmoud Abbas.
On October 30, 2014, Foreign Minister Margot Wallström announced that Sweden had recognized Palestine as a state.9
Malmö’s Inciting Mayor
On January 27, 2010, International Holocaust Remembrance Day, Skånska Dagbladet interviewed the Social Democrat mayor of Malmö, Ilmar Reepalu.10 He condemned anti-Semitism by saying, “We don’t accept Zionism nor anti-Semitism. That’s extremes that put themselves above other groups and think that they are worth less.” He furthermore condemned the alleged Israeli human rights violations and abuse of the civilian population in Gaza. Reepalu added, “I wished that the Jewish community would distance itself from Israel’s violations of the civilian population in Gaza.” Such a statement is anti-Semitic according to the FRA definition. Typically, this part-time anti-Semite has never held the Muslim population of Malmö responsible for the huge and often unequaled crimes in parts of the Muslim world.11
There were large anti-Israeli demonstrations in Sweden during Israel’s Operation Cast Lead. Thanks mainly to Swedish bloggers, it is known that prominent members of the Social Democrats—then the country’s largest party—took part in hate demonstrations against Israel. Mona Sahlin, the party’s leader, participated in a rally in Stockholm12 where Hizbullah and Hamas flags were flown and an Israeli flag was burned.13 Jan Eliasson, the former foreign minister,14 and Wanja Lundby-Wedin, chair of the Swedish Trade Union Con- federation,15 also took part in that event.
In Norrköping another senior Social Democrat, Lars Stjernkvist, spoke at a demonstration with a Hizbullah flag as well as swastikas in the background. A blogger captured this with his camera.16 When it became news, the local Social Democrat newspaper Folkbladet criticized the blogger for making an issue out of it.17 In Göteborg, white cloths with Israeli symbols were burned. In Malmö another Social Democrat parliamentarian, Luciano Astudillo, spoke as someone next to him held up a picture of Hizbullah leader Hassan Nasrallah.18
In April 2006 two Hamas representatives, spokesperson for the Hamas bloc in the Palestinian Legislative Council Salah Mohammed el-Bardawil and Mohammed el-Rantisi, were invited to visit by the Norwegian Palestine Committee. They claimed it was “important” to invite representatives from the new Palestinian government.19 El-Rantisi was given a Schengen visa by Norway, allowing him entry into any of the fifteen member countries, while el-Bardawil received a national visa as his previous Schengen application had been denied by France.20, 21
The entry permits were given only a few weeks after a major suicide bombing took place outside a fast-food restaurant, the Mayor’s Falafel, in Tel Aviv, which claimed nine lives and left more than seventy wounded.22 The Islamic Jihad movement claimed responsibility. Hamas called the attack a legitimate response to “Israeli aggression.” Even though el-Bardawil said that he did not condemn the suicide bombing, Foreign Minister Støre—also from Labour— welcomed the Hamas representatives to Norway.23, 24
In the following months, Hamas parliamentarian Yahya al-Abadsa and Refugee Minister Atef Adwan were invited by the same organization. During his week-long visit al-Abadsa met with Amnesty International Norway and the Labour Party head of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Foreign Af- fairs, Olav Akselsen.25 Adwan attended a meeting with the head of the Middle East section of the Foreign Ministry, Kåre Eltervåg.26 He also met with parlia- mentarians from both the Labour and Socialist Left parties.
Norway was the first Western government to recognize the short-lived 2007 Hamas-Fatah unity government, which was led, as mentioned, by Ismail Haniyeh.27 Norwegian Deputy Foreign Minister Raymond Johansen, a Labour politician, became the first senior European official to hold talks with Haniyeh in March 2007. Several media displayed a picture of the two shaking hands.28 Aft r meeting Haniyeh, Johansen said, “We hope that all the European countries and even other countries will support this unity government.”29, 30 Israel thereupon canceled all planned meetings between Johansen and Israeli officials.
Denying the Truth
In an interview with Norway’s commercial channel TV2 in 2011, Norway’s then-Labour Party Foreign Minister Støre initially denied that he had spoken directly with Hamas leader Khaled Mashal several times on the phone.31 The interviewer replied that Mashal had confirmed that he had been in contact with the foreign minister at the time. Støre then asked to stop the tape and restart the interview. He explained that the contacts with Mashal were made upon a request by Palestinian Authority president Mahmoud Abbas.
Then-opposition leaders Erna Solberg of the Conservative Party (Høyre), Siv Jensen of the Progress Party (FrP), and Knut Arild Hareide of the Christian People’s Party (KrF) reacted strongly to this information. Jensen accused Støre of lying to the parliament.32
In April 2011, Støre published an article titled “Why we must talk” in the New York Review of Books.33 He argued for the use of dialogue as a tool of conflict resolution in the Middle East. Støre cited the international intervention in Afghanistan as an example of why dialogue with hostile and violent groups, such as the Taliban, is a crucial element of dealing with the increasing problem of terrorism. He wrote: “While a military presence is still needed, Afghans and their international partners must find a way forward through diplomatic dialogue with the Taliban.”34
In 2011, the Norwegian government claimed on its official website that it had assisted in bringing Fatah and Hamas together in their short-lived unity government in 2007. At the request of Abbas, Støre had approached Mashal to convey expectations of the international community that the two movements join in a unity government. The Norwegian government also asserted that it had never recognized Hamas or established political contact with it.
The then U.S. ambassador to Norway, Benson K. Whitney, saw it differently. In a note he sent home in 2009, he said, “Even though they would deny it, there are clear signs that the contact with Hamas is not just a tactical need for dialogue, but that they also support Hamas’s position on some level.”35
Operation Cast Lead
During Israel’s Cast Lead campaign against the Hamas-ruled Gaza Strip in 2008- 2009, the Norwegian government’s position toward Israel was among the most negative in Europe. Pretending to serve the interests of the civilian Palestinian population—which had voted a parliamentary majority to the genocide-promoting Hamas—the Norwegian attitude benefited the terrorist rulers of Gaza.
Støre stated, “The Israeli ground offensive in Gaza constitutes a dramatic escalation of the conflict. Norway strongly condemns any form of warfare that causes severe civilian suffering, and calls on Israel to withdraw its forces immediately.” He added, “Gaza is the world’s most densely populated area, and the effects of a ground invasion on a long-suffering civilian population that has endured a strict closure regime for many years, and now many days of military attacks, will be extremely grave.”36
In his condemnation of Israel, Støre made use of a recurrent lie. The Gaza Strip is far from being the world’s most densely populated area. Singapore, Hong Kong, and even the Tel Aviv metropolitan area are more crowded than Gaza.37 Such lies are repeated often by many pseudo-humanitarian critics of Israel. Yet, once again, Støre criticized Israel without offering any practical alternative for it to protect its population against Hamas’s indiscriminate attacks.
Other Northern Countries
In May 2004 the chairman of the Danish Social Democrats in the European Parliament, Torben Lund, published an article in the daily Politiken. Proposing a complete economic boycott of Israel, he stressed the responsibility of the Jews for the policies of the Israeli government and asserted that if criticism of murder was anti-Semitism, “then call me an anti-Semite.” Chief Rabbi Emeritus Bent Melchior responded with an article in the same newspaper titled “Con- gratulations Lund, You Are an Antisemite.”38
Finland’s Foreign Minister Erkki Tuomioja, who has compared Israeli policies with those of the Nazis, also engaged in distorting facts. In a 2005 interview he said that, since Abbas’s election as Palestinian Authority president at the begin- ning of that year, “There are approximately as many roadblocks as before and all political prisoners that were promised to be freed have not been freed . . .”
Political scientist Efraim Karsh commented:
There are no political prisoners in Israeli jails. All Palestinian prisoners whose release is demanded by the PA are either convicted terrorists, or suspected terrorists awaiting trial, or planners and perpetrators of other acts of violence. Of these, 500 were released on 21 February 2005, while another 400 were released four months later, on 2 June 2005.39
A British Holocaust Distorter
During Israel’s Protective Edge campaign a former British deputy prime minister from the Labour Party, John Prescott, wrote a column condemning Israel. In his words:
Compare . . . the toll in Gaza. Of the 1,000-plus to die, more than 80 per cent were civilians, mostly women and children. But who is to say some of the other 20 percent weren’t innocent too? Israel brands them terrorists but it is acting as judge, jury and executioner in the concentration camp that is Gaza.
He added, “What happened to the Jewish people at the hands of the Nazis is appalling. But you would think those atrocities would give Israelis a unique sense of perspective and empathy with the victims of a ghetto.”40
Prescott exaggerated the percentage of civilian casualties and did not mention Hamas’s interest in having as many civilians killed as possible, or the similarity of Hamas’s aims to those of the Nazis. That is just a small selection of the many distortions in his column.
The party platform of the Dutch Labour Party (PvdA) for parliamentary elections in 2010 contained a section on unstable regions in the world. One sentence was devoted to the many conflicts in Africa: “The situation in the Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes there, remains very precarious.”41 There was no mention of anything else, including Darfur, where already more than three hundred thousand people had died in previous years.
There were and still are many unstable regions in Asia where Muslims murder, mainly, other Muslims. A partial daily update is available on a web- site.42 The war in Afghanistan, concerning which the PvdA caused a cabinet crisis that led to new elections, did not merit a single word in the entire party program. Iran and the genocidal threats emanating from that country were not mentioned either. There was no word about the more than one hundred million Muslims who share—the since killed—Osama Bin Laden’s murderous
outlook on the world. According to leaders of the Dutch Labour Party, this was apparently not something that warranted concern.
The only other conflict to which the PvdA devoted specific attention was the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. They claimed in their program that their only standard was international law, and made demands of Israel based on it. Their only specific demand of the Palestinians was that the “shooting of rockets from Gaza into Israel has to be stopped.”
An intelligent Martian who landed on Earth and read the international section of the PvdA’s program would have understood that the problems of the entire world could be solved if Israel withdrew from the disputed territories. A Martian who had arrived in the Middle Ages and heard preachers in Catholic churches would have understood that the pest epidemic would end if there were no more Jews. If it had been the same Martian who had recently returned to Earth, he could have concluded, “People have become more hypocritical in the course of the centuries, but the motif is still the same.”
There were some other potential targets for the application of what is called international law in the Middle East. The UN Genocide Convention posits that incitement to commit genocide, even before actual genocide is carried out, is punishable under international law. That convention has been signed by 130 countries, among which are the Netherlands and Iran. Until the beginning of 2010, the PvdA was still part of the Dutch government and should have ensured that the Netherlands brought Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad before an international court.43 But when it came to this issue, the Dutch Labourites ignored international law.
Jehudi Kinar was Israel’s ambassador in Belgium from 2003 to 2007. In 2013, he described the negative attitude toward Israel of several leading Socialist politicians from Wallony:
After the kidnapping of Gilad Shalit in 2006, Di Rupo came out with a press release claiming Israel used this as a pretext to start a war against Lebanon. [Di Rupo would be Belgian prime minister from 2011 to 2014.] The embassy responded by pointing out that the PS [Wallonian Socialist Party] had never condemned the rocket attacks from Gaza on the citizens of Sderot. Di Rupo referred to this in the summer university, an annual political gathering of the party, where he declared that he would continue his political line toward Israel “despite the arrogant letter from the Israeli ambassador.” That letters of the Israeli ambassador did not deserve a response was a trademark of the PS.
. . . André Flahaut, then defense minister, was particularly problematic. He is currently chairman of the Chamber. Flahaut was always available for meetings yet came out with very strong anti-Israeli statements. In later years he also took part in anti-Israeli demonstrations. Meetings with him were important because Belgium had soldiers in the UNIFIL force in Lebanon.
Many politicians were surrounded by anti-Israeli advisers. This was not only the case with Flahaut but also, for example, with a Liberal like Louis Michel. He had a number of close advisers with Muslim backgrounds.
A case apart is Philippe Moureaux, a former Belgian deputy prime minister and now mayor of St.-Jans-Molenbeek. For years he asked the Israeli embassy to provide Palestinian children from Bethlehem and Ramallah with exit visas so they could spend their vacations in Belgium. When I asked Moureaux why he did not organize a common visit for those children together with Jewish chil- dren from Sderot, he did not answer. A year later when he repeated his request, we asked the same question and got no reply. In June 2010, the not-so-young mayor (seventy-two) married Latifa Benaicha, who is of Muslim background. The most extreme anti-Israeli in the PS is Senator Pierre Galand. He has initi- ated many anti-Israeli motions in the Senate. He also heads various anti-Israeli organizations such as the Belgian-Palestinian Association and the Lay Action Center. Galand was also secretary-general of OXFAM Belgium during the pe- riod 1967-1996. Veronique De Keyser, a European PS parliamentarian, once de- clared that she wanted to strangle the Israeli ambassador. Many people thought she meant me. As she is a member of the European Parliament, I can clarify that she referred to my colleague who was the Israeli ambassador to the EU.44
After Protective Edge, the Socialist former secretary-general of NATO Willy Claes attacked Israel. He said, “Israel has to realize that the enormous histori- cal credit that Judaism has built up after the Second World War has now been exhausted.” He also claimed that Russian immigration to Israel is the cause of the political center moving to the right.
It apparently did not dawn on Claes that the extreme ideological violence and criminality widespread in Palestinian society has convinced many Israelis that peace with the Palestinians is at present impossible. Claes also mentioned another of his fantasies: “I am afraid that more Israelis think the Palestinians should be expelled from what remains as autonomous Palestinian territories.” He added, “I do not say that all Israelis want that, but I fear that it is the wish of a new majority in the country.”45
Some British Labour politicians favor extreme anti-Semites so as to please Muslims. While he was mayor of London, Labour politician Ken Livingstone gave a cordial welcome and appeared jointly with the Egyptian cleric Yusuf al-Qaradawi,46 who had praised Palestinian suicide bombings. In 2003, senior Labour MP Tam Dalyell claimed that a Jewish cabal of Zionists in the United States and Britain was driving their governments into war against Syria.47
An adviser of the French Socialist Party, Pascal Boniface, told the party before the 2002 elections to become more pro-Arab because there were many more Muslims than Jews in France.48 In a 2004 lecture in Alexandria, former French Prime Minister Michel Rocard, also a Socialist, called the Balfour Dec- laration that led to Israel’s creation “a historic mistake.”49
Rocard also once banalized the Holocaust knowing well what he was doing. He said that he and his followers in the French Socialist Party said among themselves that they had a status in the party “like those wearing the yellow star, this comparison may be repugnant but it describes the atmosphere well.”50 Boniface’s calls encountered substantial resistance. In 2014, there was a similar occurrence in the United Kingdom. As noted, in October of that year the new Swedish Social Democrat Prime Minister Stefan Löfven announced
that his government would recognize a Palestinian state, and it soon did so. Shortly after the initial Swedish announcement the British Labour Party initi- ated a vote in the House of Commons on recognition of a Palestinian state.
The Jerusalem Post wrote that Shadow Foreign Sectary Douglas Alexander,
also the head of the Labour Party’s election strategy team, “has done the math, noting that he has to make sure his party is attractive to the 3 million Muslims in the UK, a large number of whom reside in marginal, inner city constituencies. They far outweigh Britain’s roughly 280,000 Jews, only a small number of whom reside in similarly marginal constituencies.”51
During Protective Edge, French Socialist Interior Minister Bernard Caze-neuve said that he would have participated in the pro-Gaza demonstrations had he not been a government member.52 In other words, he would have participated in supporting the genocidal Hamas movement, in demonstrations where most probably there were anti-Semitic acts.
Samuels’s Intentional Mistake
At an OSCE meeting in Berlin in 2004, Samuels “exposed” a Socialist-terrorist collaboration. He referred to a fi titious congress on creative solutions for immigration into Europe in which Jean-Marie Le Pen and the Russian anti- Semitic leader Vladimir Zhirinovsky were to participate; it was to be financed by the Konrad Adenauer Foundation, associated with the German Christian Democrats. This caused an uproar. Samuels apologized for his “mistake” and said he had intended to refer to a conference held in Beirut, funded by the German Socialist Friedrich Ebert Foundation, with speakers from the terrorist Hizbullah and Hamas.
The Wiesenthal Center noted on its website that participants at this conference, funded by the “flagship of Germany’s ruling Social Democratic party,” included
Shaykh Naeem Qasim from Hizbullah; Azzam Tamimi, from the Institute of Islamic Thought in London, who presents himself in the Arab press as a coun- selor to Hamas; Tariq Ramadan, from the University of Fribourg, a Muslim Brotherhood ideologue, notorious for his public incitement to anti-Semitism in France; Ibrahim al-Masri, vice president of Lebanon’s al-Jama’a al-Islamiyya, a group linked by terrorism experts to al-Qaeda; and Munir Shafiq, a leading Hamas ideologist and former activist in Islamic Jihad.53
We have earlier noted how various leading Socialists, including Palme and Andreas Papandreou, compared Israeli policies with those of the Nazis.
- Daniel Perdurant, “Anti-Semitism in Contemporary Greek Society,” Analysis of Current Trends in Anti-Semitism, 7 (Jerusalem: Hebrew University, 1995),
- “You Can Kill a Jew,” Central Jewish Board Information Bulletin, January 1, 1989;
The Washington Post article was quoted therein.
- Spiros Payatakis, “City Council Holocaust,” Apoghevmatini, August 29, 1986 (Greek).
- Edward Koch, “A Modern Greek Tragedy,” New York Post, September 11, 1986.
- Manfred Gerstenfeld, interview with Moses Altsech, “Anti-Semitism in Greece: Embedded in Society,” Post-Holocaust and Anti-Semitism, 23, August 1, 2004.
- Manfred Gerstenfeld, interview with Zvi Mazel, “Anti-Israelism and Anti-Semitism in Sweden,” in Behind the Humanitarian Mask (Jerusalem: Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs and Friends of Simon Wiesenthal Center for Holocaust Studies, 2008), 83.
- Salomo Berlinger, Stefan Meisels, Torsten Press, and Willy Salomon, “Sweden Can Do Much More for Country’s Jewish Community,” Haaretz, June 10, 2004.
- Benjamin Weinthal, “Sweden PM’s recognition of Palestine violates law, says legislator,” The Jerusalem Post, October 13, 2014.
- Isabel Kershner, “Sweden Gives Recognition to Palestinians,” The New York Times, October 30, 2014.
- “Swedish Mayor blasts Zionism,” Ynetnews, January 28, 2010.
- Mikael Tossavainen, “Mayor of Malmo: Jews to Blame for Antisemitism,” A Blog of Two Cities, January 29, 2010.
- Per Gudmundson, “Mona Sahlin, hakkorsen och Hamasflaggorna,” Gudmundson, January 15, 2009 (Swedish).
- “Israelska flaggan brändes,” Dagens Nyheter, January 10, 2009 (Swedish).
- Per Gudmundson, “Rödflaggat,” Gudmundson, January 13, 2009 (Swedish).
- Per Gudmundson, “Swedish Leading Social Democrats in Rally with Hezbollah Flags,” Gudmundson, January 10, 2009 (Swedish).
- Erik Svansbo, “Folkbladet uppmärksammar ‘bloggkupp,’” Svansbo, January 14, 2009 (Swedish).
- “‘Extrema yttringar – tack vare Svansbo,’” Folkbladet, January 14, 2009 (Swedish).
- Per Gudmundson, “Rödflaggat,” Gudmundson, January 13, (Swedish)
- Ole Berthelsen and Ole Peder Giæver, “Støre ønsker Hamas velkommen,” Nettavisen, April 18, 2006 (Norwegian).
- Abigail Klein Leichman, “Oslo Grants Visa to Hamas Lawmaker,” The Jerusalem Post, May 16, 2006.
- Sissel Henriksen, “Slakter Sveriges,” Klassekampen, May 19, 2006 (Norwegian).
- “Suicide bomber kills nine in Tel Aviv,” NBC News, April 17, 2006.
- Ashraf al-Khadra and Ole Peder Giæver, “Fordømmer ikke selvmords-angrepet,”Nettavisen, April 18, 2006. (Norwegian)
- Berthelsen and Giæver, “Støre ønsker Hamas velkommen.”
- Ole Peder Giæver, “Hamas-parlamentarikeren Yahya Al-Abadsa, som denne uken er på besøk i Norge, tror ikke det brygger til borgerkrig i de palestinske områdene,” Nettavisen, June 13, 2006 (Norwegian).
- “UD-representanter møtte Hamas-minister,” Aftenposten, May 13, 2006 (Norwegian).
- Harald Klungtveit and Morten Øverbye, “Israel avlyser alle avtaler med norsk statssekretær,” Dagbladet, March 20, 2007. (Norwegian).
- “Norwegian minister meets Hamas PM,” BBC News, March 19, 2007.
- “Norway-Hamas Link Angers Israel,” BBC News, March 20, 2007.
- Pål T. Jørgensen and Espen Eide, “Støre har hatt hemmelige samtaler med Hamas,” TV2, January 27, 2011 (Norwegian).
- Jonas Gahr Støre, “Why we must talk,” New York Review of Books, April 7, 2011.
- Jørgensen and Eide, “Støre har hatt hemmelige samtaler med Hamas”.
- “Israel Must Withdraw Its Troops from Gaza,” Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Nor- way, January 3, 2009.
- Stephen Pollard, “Gaza Is Not Too Crowded,” The Spectator, April 24, 2008.
- “Antisemitism Worldwide 2004,” Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Anti-Semitism and Racism, Tel Aviv University, 2005.
- Efraim Karsh, “European Misreading of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Finnish Foreign Minister Tuomioja—A Case Study,” Jerusalem Issue Brief, 27, July 12, 2005.
- John Prescott, “Israel’s bombardment of Gaza is a war crime—and it must end,”
The Mirror, July 26, 2014.
- Verkiezingsprogramma Tweede-Kamer verkiezingen 2010, “Iedereen telt De kracht van Nederland,” Partij van de Arbeid, 2010. (Dutch)
- Manfred Gerstenfeld, Het Verval, Joden in een Stuurloos Nederland (Amsterdam: Van Praag, 2010), 164-173. (Dutch)
- Manfred Gerstenfeld, interview with Jehudi Kinar, “Belgium’s Attitudes toward Israel and the Jews,” Post-Holocaust and Anti-Semitism, 112, November 9, 2011.
- Walter Pauli, “Israël moet beseffen dat reusachtige historische WOII-krediet sti- laan is uitgeput,” Knack, August 6, 2014 (Dutch).
- Faisal al Yafai, “Cleric Hits Back at Uniformed Critics,” The Guardian, July 12, 2004.
- Fraser Nelson, “Anger over Dalyell’s ‘Jewish Cabal’ Slur,” The Scotsman, May 5, 2003.
- Pascal Boniface, “Lettre a un ami israelien,” Le Monde, August 4, See also by the same author: “Est il interdit de critiquer Israel?” Le Monde, August 31, 2001. (French)
- “Former French PM Calls Balfour Declaration ‘Historic Mistake,’” Israel National News, June 20, 2004.
- “Michel Rocard règle ses comptes avec le socialisme à la francaise,” Le Monde, October 5, 2005(French).
- Jerry Lewis, “Labor’s Miliband set to be guest speaker at pro-Palestinian dinner,” The Jerusalem Post, November 26, 2014.
- “Rassemblement pro-Gaza: Cazeneuve aurait manifesté s’il n’était pas ministre,”
Le Point, August 15, 2014. (French)
- wiesenthal.com/site/apps/s/content.asp?c>fwLYKnN8LzH&b>2531- 62&ct>285288.